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go gin框架使用详细介绍

Gin 是一个 go 写的 web 框架,具有高性能的优点。官方地址:https://github.com/gin-gonic/gin

安装
要安装Gin包,首先需要安装Go并设置Go工作区

1、下载并安装

$ go get -u github.com/gin-gonic/gin

2、在代码中导入它

import "github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

使用包管理工具Govendor安装

1、go get govendor(安装)

$ go get github.com/kardianos/govendor

2、创建项目文件夹并进入文件夹

GOPATH/src/github.com/myusername/project && cd "$_"

3、初始化项目并添加 gin

$ govendor init

$ govendor fetch github.com/gin-gonic/gin@v1.3

4、复制一个模板到你的项目

$ curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gin-gonic/gin/master/examples/basic/main.go > main.go

5、运行项目

$ go run main.go

前提
使用gin需要Go的版本号为1.6或更高

快速入门
运行这段代码并在浏览器中访问 http://localhost:8080

package main

import "github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

func main() {
r := gin.Default()
r.GET("/ping", func(c *gin.Context) {
c.JSON(200, gin.H{
"message": "pong",
})
})
r.Run() // listen and serve on 0.0.0.0:8080
}
代码示例
使用 GET, POST, PUT, PATCH, DELETE, OPTIONS
func main() {
// Disable Console Color
// gin.DisableConsoleColor()

// 使用默认中间件创建一个gin路由器
// logger and recovery (crash-free) 中间件
router := gin.Default()

router.GET("/someGet", getting)
router.POST("/somePost", posting)
router.PUT("/somePut", putting)
router.DELETE("/someDelete", deleting)
router.PATCH("/somePatch", patching)
router.HEAD("/someHead", head)
router.OPTIONS("/someOptions", options)

// 默认启动的是 8080端口,也可以自己定义启动端口
router.Run()
// router.Run(":3000") for a hard coded port

}
获取路径中的参数
func main() {
router := gin.Default()

// 此规则能够匹配/user/john这种格式,但不能匹配/user/ 或 /user这种格式
router.GET("/user/:name", func(c *gin.Context) {
    name := c.Param("name")
    c.String(http.StatusOK, "Hello %s", name)
})

// 但是,这个规则既能匹配/user/john/格式也能匹配/user/john/send这种格式
// 如果没有其他路由器匹配/user/john,它将重定向到/user/john/
router.GET("/user/:name/*action", func(c *gin.Context) {
    name := c.Param("name")
    action := c.Param("action")
    message := name + " is " + action
    c.String(http.StatusOK, message)
})

router.Run(":8080")

}
获取Get参数
func main() {
router := gin.Default()

// 匹配的url格式:  /welcome?firstname=Jane&lastname=Doe
router.GET("/welcome", func(c *gin.Context) {
    firstname := c.DefaultQuery("firstname", "Guest")
    lastname := c.Query("lastname") // 是 c.Request.URL.Query().Get("lastname") 的简写

    c.String(http.StatusOK, "Hello %s %s", firstname, lastname)
})
router.Run(":8080")

}
获取Post参数
func main() {
router := gin.Default()

router.POST("/form_post", func(c *gin.Context) {
    message := c.PostForm("message")
    nick := c.DefaultPostForm("nick", "anonymous") // 此方法可以设置默认值

    c.JSON(200, gin.H{
        "status":  "posted",
        "message": message,
        "nick":    nick,
    })
})
router.Run(":8080")

}
Get + Post 混合
示例:
POST /post?id=1234&page=1 HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

name=manu&message=this_is_great
func main() {
router := gin.Default()

router.POST("/post", func(c *gin.Context) {

    id := c.Query("id")
    page := c.DefaultQuery("page", "0")
    name := c.PostForm("name")
    message := c.PostForm("message")

    fmt.Printf("id: %s; page: %s; name: %s; message: %s", id, page, name, message)
})
router.Run(":8080")

}
结果:id: 1234; page: 1; name: manu; message: this_is_great
上传文件
单文件上传
参考问题 #774,细节 example code

慎用 file.Filename ,参考 Content-Disposition on MDN 和 #1693

上传文件的文件名可以由用户自定义,所以可能包含非法字符串,为了安全起见,应该由服务端统一文件名规则

func main() {
router := gin.Default()
// 给表单限制上传大小 (默认 32 MiB)
// router.MaxMultipartMemory = 8 << 20 // 8 MiB
router.POST("/upload", func(c *gin.Context) {
// 单文件
file, _ := c.FormFile("file")
log.Println(file.Filename)

    // 上传文件到指定的路径
    // c.SaveUploadedFile(file, dst)

    c.String(http.StatusOK, fmt.Sprintf("'%s' uploaded!", file.Filename))
})
router.Run(":8080")

}
curl 测试:

curl -X POST http://localhost:8080/upload \
-F "file=@/Users/appleboy/test.zip" \
-H "Content-Type: multipart/form-data"
多文件上传
详细示例:example code

func main() {
router := gin.Default()
// 给表单限制上传大小 (默认 32 MiB)
// router.MaxMultipartMemory = 8 << 20 // 8 MiB
router.POST("/upload", func(c *gin.Context) {
// 多文件
form, _ := c.MultipartForm()
files := form.File["upload[]"]

    for _, file := range files {
        log.Println(file.Filename)

        // 上传文件到指定的路径
        // c.SaveUploadedFile(file, dst)
    }
    c.String(http.StatusOK, fmt.Sprintf("%d files uploaded!", len(files)))
})
router.Run(":8080")

}
curl 测试:

curl -X POST http://localhost:8080/upload \
-F "upload[]=@/Users/appleboy/test1.zip" \
-F "upload[]=@/Users/appleboy/test2.zip" \
-H "Content-Type: multipart/form-data"
路由分组
func main() {
router := gin.Default()

// Simple group: v1
v1 := router.Group("/v1")
{
    v1.POST("/login", loginEndpoint)
    v1.POST("/submit", submitEndpoint)
    v1.POST("/read", readEndpoint)
}

// Simple group: v2
v2 := router.Group("/v2")
{
    v2.POST("/login", loginEndpoint)
    v2.POST("/submit", submitEndpoint)
    v2.POST("/read", readEndpoint)
}

router.Run(":8080")

}
无中间件启动
使用

r := gin.New()
代替

// 默认启动方式,包含 Logger、Recovery 中间件
r := gin.Default()
使用中间件
func main() {
// 创建一个不包含中间件的路由器
r := gin.New()

// 全局中间件
// 使用 Logger 中间件
r.Use(gin.Logger())

// 使用 Recovery 中间件
r.Use(gin.Recovery())

// 路由添加中间件,可以添加任意多个
r.GET("/benchmark", MyBenchLogger(), benchEndpoint)

// 路由组中添加中间件
// authorized := r.Group("/", AuthRequired())
// exactly the same as:
authorized := r.Group("/")
// per group middleware! in this case we use the custom created
// AuthRequired() middleware just in the "authorized" group.
authorized.Use(AuthRequired())
{
    authorized.POST("/login", loginEndpoint)
    authorized.POST("/submit", submitEndpoint)
    authorized.POST("/read", readEndpoint)

    // nested group
    testing := authorized.Group("testing")
    testing.GET("/analytics", analyticsEndpoint)
}

// Listen and serve on 0.0.0.0:8080
r.Run(":8080")

}
写日志文件
func main() {
// 禁用控制台颜色
gin.DisableConsoleColor()

// 创建记录日志的文件
f, _ := os.Create("gin.log")
gin.DefaultWriter = io.MultiWriter(f)

// 如果需要将日志同时写入文件和控制台,请使用以下代码
// gin.DefaultWriter = io.MultiWriter(f, os.Stdout)

router := gin.Default()
router.GET("/ping", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.String(200, "pong")
})

router.Run(":8080")

}
自定义日志格式
func main() {
router := gin.New()

// LoggerWithFormatter 中间件会将日志写入 gin.DefaultWriter
// By default gin.DefaultWriter = os.Stdout
router.Use(gin.LoggerWithFormatter(func(param gin.LogFormatterParams) string {

    // 你的自定义格式
    return fmt.Sprintf("%s - [%s] \"%s %s %s %d %s \"%s\" %s\"\n",
            param.ClientIP,
            param.TimeStamp.Format(time.RFC1123),
            param.Method,
            param.Path,
            param.Request.Proto,
            param.StatusCode,
            param.Latency,
            param.Request.UserAgent(),
            param.ErrorMessage,
    )
}))
router.Use(gin.Recovery())

router.GET("/ping", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.String(200, "pong")
})

router.Run(":8080")

}
输出示例:

::1 - [Fri, 07 Dec 2018 17:04:38 JST] "GET /ping HTTP/1.1 200 122.767µs "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_11_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/71.0.3578.80 Safari/537.36" "
模型绑定和验证
若要将请求主体绑定到结构体中,请使用模型绑定,目前支持JSON、XML、YAML和标准表单值(foo=bar&boo=baz)的绑定。

Gin使用 go-playground/validator.v8 验证参数,查看完整文档。

需要在绑定的字段上设置tag,比如,绑定格式为json,需要这样设置 json:"fieldname" 。

此外,Gin还提供了两套绑定方法:

Must bind
Methods - Bind, BindJSON, BindXML, BindQuery, BindYAML
Behavior - 这些方法底层使用 MustBindWith,如果存在绑定错误,请求将被以下指令中止 c.AbortWithError(400, err).SetType(ErrorTypeBind),响应状态代码会被设置为400,请求头Content-Type被设置为text/plain; charset=utf-8。注意,如果你试图在此之后设置响应代码,将会发出一个警告 [GIN-debug] [WARNING] Headers were already written. Wanted to override status code 400 with 422,如果你希望更好地控制行为,请使用ShouldBind相关的方法
Should bind
Methods - ShouldBind, ShouldBindJSON, ShouldBindXML, ShouldBindQuery, ShouldBindYAML
Behavior - 这些方法底层使用 ShouldBindWith,如果存在绑定错误,则返回错误,开发人员可以正确处理请求和错误。
当我们使用绑定方法时,Gin会根据Content-Type推断出使用哪种绑定器,如果你确定你绑定的是什么,你可以使用MustBindWith或者BindingWith。

你还可以给字段指定特定规则的修饰符,如果一个字段用binding:"required"修饰,并且在绑定时该字段的值为空,那么将返回一个错误。

// 绑定为json
type Login struct {
User string form:"user" json:"user" xml:"user" binding:"required"
Password string form:"password" json:"password" xml:"password" binding:"required"
}

func main() {
router := gin.Default()

// Example for binding JSON ({"user": "manu", "password": "123"})
router.POST("/loginJSON", func(c *gin.Context) {
    var json Login
    if err := c.ShouldBindJSON(&json); err != nil {
        c.JSON(http.StatusBadRequest, gin.H{"error": err.Error()})
        return
    }

    if json.User != "manu" || json.Password != "123" {
        c.JSON(http.StatusUnauthorized, gin.H{"status": "unauthorized"})
        return
    } 

    c.JSON(http.StatusOK, gin.H{"status": "you are logged in"})
})

// Example for binding XML (
//  <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
//  <root>
//      <user>user</user>
//      <password>123</password>
//  </root>)
router.POST("/loginXML", func(c *gin.Context) {
    var xml Login
    if err := c.ShouldBindXML(&xml); err != nil {
        c.JSON(http.StatusBadRequest, gin.H{"error": err.Error()})
        return
    }

    if xml.User != "manu" || xml.Password != "123" {
        c.JSON(http.StatusUnauthorized, gin.H{"status": "unauthorized"})
        return
    } 

    c.JSON(http.StatusOK, gin.H{"status": "you are logged in"})
})

// Example for binding a HTML form (user=manu&password=123)
router.POST("/loginForm", func(c *gin.Context) {
    var form Login
    // This will infer what binder to use depending on the content-type header.
    if err := c.ShouldBind(&form); err != nil {
        c.JSON(http.StatusBadRequest, gin.H{"error": err.Error()})
        return
    }

    if form.User != "manu" || form.Password != "123" {
        c.JSON(http.StatusUnauthorized, gin.H{"status": "unauthorized"})
        return
    } 

    c.JSON(http.StatusOK, gin.H{"status": "you are logged in"})
})

// Listen and serve on 0.0.0.0:8080
router.Run(":8080")

}
请求示例:

$ curl -v -X POST \
http://localhost:8080/loginJSON \
-H 'content-type: application/json' \
-d '{ "user": "manu" }'

POST /loginJSON HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost:8080
User-Agent: curl/7.51.0
Accept: /
content-type: application/json
Content-Length: 18

  • upload completely sent off: 18 out of 18 bytes
    < HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
    < Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
    < Date: Fri, 04 Aug 2017 03:51:31 GMT
    < Content-Length: 100
    <
    {"error":"Key: 'Login.Password' Error:Field validation for 'Password' failed on the 'required' tag"}
    跳过验证:

当使用上面的curl命令运行上面的示例时,返回错误,因为示例中Password字段使用了binding:"required",如果我们使用binding:"-",那么它就不会报错。

自定义验证器
Gin允许我们自定义参数验证器,参考1,参考2,参考3

package main

import (
"net/http"
"reflect"
"time"

"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"
"github.com/gin-gonic/gin/binding"
"gopkg.in/go-playground/validator.v8"

)

// Booking contains binded and validated data.
type Booking struct {
CheckIn time.Time form:"check_in" binding:"required,bookabledate" time_format:"2006-01-02"
CheckOut time.Time form:"check_out" binding:"required,gtfield=CheckIn" time_format:"2006-01-02"
}

func bookableDate(
v *validator.Validate, topStruct reflect.Value, currentStructOrField reflect.Value,
field reflect.Value, fieldType reflect.Type, fieldKind reflect.Kind, param string,
) bool {
if date, ok := field.Interface().(time.Time); ok {
today := time.Now()
if today.Year() > date.Year() || today.YearDay() > date.YearDay() {
return false
}
}
return true
}

func main() {
route := gin.Default()

if v, ok := binding.Validator.Engine().(*validator.Validate); ok {
    v.RegisterValidation("bookabledate", bookableDate)
}

route.GET("/bookable", getBookable)
route.Run(":8085")

}

func getBookable(c *gin.Context) {
var b Booking
if err := c.ShouldBindWith(&b, binding.Query); err == nil {
c.JSON(http.StatusOK, gin.H{"message": "Booking dates are valid!"})
} else {
c.JSON(http.StatusBadRequest, gin.H{"error": err.Error()})
}
}
$ curl "localhost:8085/bookable?check_in=2018-04-16&check_out=2018-04-17"
{"message":"Booking dates are valid!"}

$ curl "localhost:8085/bookable?check_in=2018-03-08&check_out=2018-03-09"
{"error":"Key: 'Booking.CheckIn' Error:Field validation for 'CheckIn' failed on the 'bookabledate' tag"}
只绑定Get参数
ShouldBindQuery 函数只绑定Get参数,不绑定post数据,查看详细信息

package main

import (
"log"

"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

)

type Person struct {
Name string form:"name"
Address string form:"address"
}

func main() {
route := gin.Default()
route.Any("/testing", startPage)
route.Run(":8085")
}

func startPage(c *gin.Context) {
var person Person
if c.ShouldBindQuery(&person) == nil {
log.Println("====== Only Bind By Query String ======")
log.Println(person.Name)
log.Println(person.Address)
}
c.String(200, "Success")
}
绑定Get参数或者Post参数
查看详细信息,这个例子很有用,可以自己实践一下

package main

import (
"log"
"time"

"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

)

type Person struct {
Name string form:"name"
Address string form:"address"
Birthday time.Time form:"birthday" time_format:"2006-01-02" time_utc:"1"
}

func main() {
route := gin.Default()
route.GET("/testing", startPage)
route.Run(":8085")
}

func startPage(c *gin.Context) {
var person Person
// If GET, only Form binding engine (query) used.
// 如果是Get,那么接收不到请求中的Post的数据??
// 如果是Post, 首先判断 content-type 的类型 JSON or XML, 然后使用对应的绑定器获取数据.
// See more at https://github.com/gin-gonic/gin/blob/master/binding/binding.go#L48
if c.ShouldBind(&person) == nil {
log.Println(person.Name)
log.Println(person.Address)
log.Println(person.Birthday)
}

c.String(200, "Success")

}
绑定uri
查看详细信息

package main

import "github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

type Person struct {
ID string uri:"id" binding:"required,uuid"
Name string uri:"name" binding:"required"
}

func main() {
route := gin.Default()
route.GET("/:name/:id", func(c *gin.Context) {
var person Person
if err := c.ShouldBindUri(&person); err != nil {
c.JSON(400, gin.H{"msg": err})
return
}
c.JSON(200, gin.H{"name": person.Name, "uuid": person.ID})
})
route.Run(":8088")
}
测试用例:

$ curl -v localhost:8088/thinkerou/987fbc97-4bed-5078-9f07-9141ba07c9f3
$ curl -v localhost:8088/thinkerou/not-uuid
绑定HTML复选框
查看详细信息

main.go

...

type myForm struct {
Colors []string form:"colors[]"
}

...

func formHandler(c *gin.Context) {
var fakeForm myForm
c.ShouldBind(&fakeForm)
c.JSON(200, gin.H{"color": fakeForm.Colors})
}

...
form.html


Check some colors










result:

{"color":["red","green","blue"]}
绑定Post参数
package main

import (
"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"
)

type LoginForm struct {
User string form:"user" binding:"required"
Password string form:"password" binding:"required"
}

func main() {
router := gin.Default()
router.POST("/login", func(c *gin.Context) {
// you can bind multipart form with explicit binding declaration:
// c.ShouldBindWith(&form, binding.Form)
// or you can simply use autobinding with ShouldBind method:
var form LoginForm
// in this case proper binding will be automatically selected
if c.ShouldBind(&form) == nil {
if form.User == "user" && form.Password == "password" {
c.JSON(200, gin.H{"status": "you are logged in"})
} else {
c.JSON(401, gin.H{"status": "unauthorized"})
}
}
})
router.Run(":8080")
}
测试用例:

$ curl -v --form user=user --form password=password http://localhost:8080/login
XML、JSON、YAML和ProtoBuf 渲染(输出格式)
即接口返回的数据格式

func main() {
r := gin.Default()

// gin.H is a shortcut for map[string]interface{}
r.GET("/someJSON", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.JSON(http.StatusOK, gin.H{"message": "hey", "status": http.StatusOK})
})

r.GET("/moreJSON", func(c *gin.Context) {
    // You also can use a struct
    var msg struct {
        Name    string `json:"user"`
        Message string
        Number  int
    }
    msg.Name = "Lena"
    msg.Message = "hey"
    msg.Number = 123
    // Note that msg.Name becomes "user" in the JSON
    // Will output  :   {"user": "Lena", "Message": "hey", "Number": 123}
    c.JSON(http.StatusOK, msg)
})

r.GET("/someXML", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.XML(http.StatusOK, gin.H{"message": "hey", "status": http.StatusOK})
})

r.GET("/someYAML", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.YAML(http.StatusOK, gin.H{"message": "hey", "status": http.StatusOK})
})

r.GET("/someProtoBuf", func(c *gin.Context) {
    reps := []int64{int64(1), int64(2)}
    label := "test"
    // The specific definition of protobuf is written in the testdata/protoexample file.
    data := &protoexample.Test{
        Label: &label,
        Reps:  reps,
    }
    // Note that data becomes binary data in the response
    // Will output protoexample.Test protobuf serialized data
    c.ProtoBuf(http.StatusOK, data)
})

// Listen and serve on 0.0.0.0:8080
r.Run(":8080")

}
SecureJSON

使用SecureJSON可以防止json劫持,如果返回的数据是数组,则会默认在返回值前加上"while(1)"

func main() {
r := gin.Default()

// 可以自定义返回的json数据前缀
// r.SecureJsonPrefix(")]}',\n")

r.GET("/someJSON", func(c *gin.Context) {
    names := []string{"lena", "austin", "foo"}

    // 将会输出:   while(1);["lena","austin","foo"]
    c.SecureJSON(http.StatusOK, names)
})

// Listen and serve on 0.0.0.0:8080
r.Run(":8080")

}
JSONP

使用JSONP可以跨域传输,如果参数中存在回调参数,那么返回的参数将是回调函数的形式

func main() {
r := gin.Default()

r.GET("/JSONP", func(c *gin.Context) {
    data := map[string]interface{}{
        "foo": "bar",
    }

    // 访问 http://localhost:8080/JSONP?callback=call
    // 将会输出:   call({foo:"bar"})
    c.JSONP(http.StatusOK, data)
})

// Listen and serve on 0.0.0.0:8080
r.Run(":8080")

}
AsciiJSON

使用AsciiJSON将使特殊字符编码

func main() {
r := gin.Default()

r.GET("/someJSON", func(c *gin.Context) {
    data := map[string]interface{}{
        "lang": "GO语言",
        "tag":  "<br>",
    }

    // 将输出: {"lang":"GO\u8bed\u8a00","tag":"\u003cbr\u003e"}
    c.AsciiJSON(http.StatusOK, data)
})

// Listen and serve on 0.0.0.0:8080
r.Run(":8080")

}
PureJSON

通常情况下,JSON会将特殊的HTML字符替换为对应的unicode字符,比如<替换为\u003c,如果想原样输出html,则使用PureJSON,这个特性在Go 1.6及以下版本中无法使用。

func main() {
r := gin.Default()

// Serves unicode entities
r.GET("/json", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.JSON(200, gin.H{
        "html": "<b>Hello, world!</b>",
    })
})

// Serves literal characters
r.GET("/purejson", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.PureJSON(200, gin.H{
        "html": "<b>Hello, world!</b>",
    })
})

// listen and serve on 0.0.0.0:8080
r.Run(":8080")

}
设置静态文件路径
访问静态文件需要先设置路径

func main() {
router := gin.Default()
router.Static("/assets", "./assets")
router.StaticFS("/more_static", http.Dir("my_file_system"))
router.StaticFile("/favicon.ico", "./resources/favicon.ico")

// Listen and serve on 0.0.0.0:8080
router.Run(":8080")

}
返回第三方获取的数据
func main() {
router := gin.Default()
router.GET("/someDataFromReader", func(c *gin.Context) {
response, err := http.Get("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gin-gonic/logo/master/color.png")
if err != nil || response.StatusCode != http.StatusOK {
c.Status(http.StatusServiceUnavailable)
return
}

    reader := response.Body
    contentLength := response.ContentLength
    contentType := response.Header.Get("Content-Type")

    extraHeaders := map[string]string{
        "Content-Disposition": `attachment; filename="gopher.png"`,
    }

    c.DataFromReader(http.StatusOK, contentLength, contentType, reader, extraHeaders)
})
router.Run(":8080")

}
HTML渲染
使用LoadHTMLGlob() 或者 LoadHTMLFiles()

func main() {
router := gin.Default()
router.LoadHTMLGlob("templates/")
//router.LoadHTMLFiles("templates/template1.html", "templates/template2.html")
router.GET("/index", func(c
gin.Context) {
c.HTML(http.StatusOK, "index.tmpl", gin.H{
"title": "Main website",
})
})
router.Run(":8080")
}
templates/index.tmpl



{{ .title }}



在不同目录中使用具有相同名称的模板

func main() {
router := gin.Default()
router.LoadHTMLGlob("templates/*/")
router.GET("/posts/index", func(c gin.Context) {
c.HTML(http.StatusOK, "posts/index.tmpl", gin.H{
"title": "Posts",
})
})
router.GET("/users/index", func(c
gin.Context) {
c.HTML(http.StatusOK, "users/index.tmpl", gin.H{
"title": "Users",
})
})
router.Run(":8080")
}
templates/posts/index.tmpl

{{ define "posts/index.tmpl" }}


{{ .title }}

Using posts/index.tmpl



{{ end }}
templates/users/index.tmpl

{{ define "users/index.tmpl" }}


{{ .title }}

Using users/index.tmpl



{{ end }}
自定义模板渲染器

import "html/template"

func main() {
router := gin.Default()
html := template.Must(template.ParseFiles("file1", "file2"))
router.SetHTMLTemplate(html)
router.Run(":8080")
}
自定义渲染分隔符

r := gin.Default()
r.Delims("{[{", "}]}")
r.LoadHTMLGlob("/path/to/templates")
自定义模板函数

详细信息

main.go

import (
"fmt"
"html/template"
"net/http"
"time"

"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

)

func formatAsDate(t time.Time) string {
year, month, day := t.Date()
return fmt.Sprintf("%d%02d/%02d", year, month, day)
}

func main() {
router := gin.Default()
router.Delims("{[{", "}]}")
router.SetFuncMap(template.FuncMap{
"formatAsDate": formatAsDate,
})
router.LoadHTMLFiles("./testdata/template/raw.tmpl")

router.GET("/raw", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.HTML(http.StatusOK, "raw.tmpl", map[string]interface{}{
        "now": time.Date(2017, 07, 01, 0, 0, 0, 0, time.UTC),
    })
})

router.Run(":8080")

}
raw.tmpl

然后就可以在html中直接使用formatAsDate函数了

Date: {[{.now | formatAsDate}]}
Result:

Date: 2017/07/01
多个模板文件
Gin默认情况下只允许使用一个html模板文件(即一次可以加载多个模板文件),点击这里查看实现案例

重定向
发布HTTP重定向很容易,支持内部和外部链接

r.GET("/test", func(c *gin.Context) {
c.Redirect(http.StatusMovedPermanently, "http://www.google.com/")
})
Gin路由重定向,使用如下的HandleContext

r.GET("/test", func(c gin.Context) {
c.Request.URL.Path = "/test2"
r.HandleContext(c)
})
r.GET("/test2", func(c
gin.Context) {
c.JSON(200, gin.H{"hello": "world"})
})
自定义中间件
func Logger() gin.HandlerFunc {
return func(c *gin.Context) {
t := time.Now()

    // Set example variable
    c.Set("example", "12345")

    // before request

    c.Next()

    // after request
    latency := time.Since(t)
    log.Print(latency)

    // access the status we are sending
    status := c.Writer.Status()
    log.Println(status)
}

}

func main() {
r := gin.New()
r.Use(Logger())

r.GET("/test", func(c *gin.Context) {
    example := c.MustGet("example").(string)

    // it would print: "12345"
    log.Println(example)
})

// Listen and serve on 0.0.0.0:8080
r.Run(":8080")

}
使用BasicAuth()(验证)中间件
// simulate some private data
var secrets = gin.H{
"foo": gin.H{"email": "foo@bar.com", "phone": "123433"},
"austin": gin.H{"email": "austin@example.com", "phone": "666"},
"lena": gin.H{"email": "lena@guapa.com", "phone": "523443"},
}

func main() {
r := gin.Default()

// Group using gin.BasicAuth() middleware
// gin.Accounts is a shortcut for map[string]string
authorized := r.Group("/admin", gin.BasicAuth(gin.Accounts{
    "foo":    "bar",
    "austin": "1234",
    "lena":   "hello2",
    "manu":   "4321",
}))

// /admin/secrets endpoint
// hit "localhost:8080/admin/secrets
authorized.GET("/secrets", func(c *gin.Context) {
    // get user, it was set by the BasicAuth middleware
    user := c.MustGet(gin.AuthUserKey).(string)
    if secret, ok := secrets[user]; ok {
        c.JSON(http.StatusOK, gin.H{"user": user, "secret": secret})
    } else {
        c.JSON(http.StatusOK, gin.H{"user": user, "secret": "NO SECRET :("})
    }
})

// Listen and serve on 0.0.0.0:8080
r.Run(":8080")

}
中间件中使用Goroutines
在中间件或处理程序中启动新的Goroutines时,你不应该使用其中的原始上下文,你必须使用只读副本(c.Copy())

func main() {
r := gin.Default()

r.GET("/long_async", func(c *gin.Context) {
    // 创建要在goroutine中使用的副本
    cCp := c.Copy()
    go func() {
        // simulate a long task with time.Sleep(). 5 seconds
        time.Sleep(5 * time.Second)

        // 这里使用你创建的副本
        log.Println("Done! in path " + cCp.Request.URL.Path)
    }()
})

r.GET("/long_sync", func(c *gin.Context) {
    // simulate a long task with time.Sleep(). 5 seconds
    time.Sleep(5 * time.Second)

    // 这里没有使用goroutine,所以不用使用副本
    log.Println("Done! in path " + c.Request.URL.Path)
})

// Listen and serve on 0.0.0.0:8080
r.Run(":8080")

}
自定义HTTP配置
直接像这样使用http.ListenAndServe()

func main() {
router := gin.Default()
http.ListenAndServe(":8080", router)
}
或者

func main() {
router := gin.Default()

s := &http.Server{
    Addr:           ":8080",
    Handler:        router,
    ReadTimeout:    10 * time.Second,
    WriteTimeout:   10 * time.Second,
    MaxHeaderBytes: 1 << 20,
}
s.ListenAndServe()

}
支持Let's Encrypt证书
1行代码实现LetsEncrypt HTTPS服务器

package main

import (
"log"

"github.com/gin-gonic/autotls"
"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

)

func main() {
r := gin.Default()

// Ping handler
r.GET("/ping", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.String(200, "pong")
})

log.Fatal(autotls.Run(r, "example1.com", "example2.com"))

}
自定义autocert管理器的示例

package main

import (
"log"

"github.com/gin-gonic/autotls"
"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"
"golang.org/x/crypto/acme/autocert"

)

func main() {
r := gin.Default()

// Ping handler
r.GET("/ping", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.String(200, "pong")
})

m := autocert.Manager{
    Prompt:     autocert.AcceptTOS,
    HostPolicy: autocert.HostWhitelist("example1.com", "example2.com"),
    Cache:      autocert.DirCache("/var/www/.cache"),
}

log.Fatal(autotls.RunWithManager(r, &m))

}
Gin运行多个服务
请参阅问题并尝试以下示例

package main

import (
"log"
"net/http"
"time"

"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"
"golang.org/x/sync/errgroup"

)

var (
g errgroup.Group
)

func router01() http.Handler {
e := gin.New()
e.Use(gin.Recovery())
e.GET("/", func(c *gin.Context) {
c.JSON(
http.StatusOK,
gin.H{
"code": http.StatusOK,
"error": "Welcome server 01",
},
)
})

return e

}

func router02() http.Handler {
e := gin.New()
e.Use(gin.Recovery())
e.GET("/", func(c *gin.Context) {
c.JSON(
http.StatusOK,
gin.H{
"code": http.StatusOK,
"error": "Welcome server 02",
},
)
})

return e

}

func main() {
server01 := &http.Server{
Addr: ":8080",
Handler: router01(),
ReadTimeout: 5 time.Second,
WriteTimeout: 10
time.Second,
}

server02 := &http.Server{
    Addr:         ":8081",
    Handler:      router02(),
    ReadTimeout:  5 * time.Second,
    WriteTimeout: 10 * time.Second,
}

g.Go(func() error {
    return server01.ListenAndServe()
})

g.Go(func() error {
    return server02.ListenAndServe()
})

if err := g.Wait(); err != nil {
    log.Fatal(err)
}

}
优雅重启或停止
想要优雅地重启或停止你的Web服务器,使用下面的方法

我们可以使用fvbock/endless来替换默认的ListenAndServe,有关详细信息,请参阅问题#296

router := gin.Default()
router.GET("/", handler)
// [...]
endless.ListenAndServe(":4242", router)
一个替换方案

manners:一个Go HTTP服务器,能优雅的关闭
graceful:Graceful是一个go的包,支持优雅地关闭http.Handler服务器
grace:对Go服务器进行优雅的重启和零停机部署
如果你的Go版本是1.8,你可能不需要使用这个库,考虑使用http.Server内置的Shutdown()方法进行优雅关闭,查看例子

// +build go1.8

package main

import (
"context"
"log"
"net/http"
"os"
"os/signal"
"time"

"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

)

func main() {
router := gin.Default()
router.GET("/", func(c gin.Context) {
time.Sleep(5
time.Second)
c.String(http.StatusOK, "Welcome Gin Server")
})

srv := &http.Server{
    Addr:    ":8080",
    Handler: router,
}

go func() {
    // service connections
    if err := srv.ListenAndServe(); err != nil && err != http.ErrServerClosed {
        log.Fatalf("listen: %s\n", err)
    }
}()

// Wait for interrupt signal to gracefully shutdown the server with
// a timeout of 5 seconds.
quit := make(chan os.Signal)
signal.Notify(quit, os.Interrupt)
<-quit
log.Println("Shutdown Server ...")

ctx, cancel := context.WithTimeout(context.Background(), 5*time.Second)
defer cancel()
if err := srv.Shutdown(ctx); err != nil {
    log.Fatal("Server Shutdown:", err)
}
log.Println("Server exiting")

}
构建包含模板的二进制文件
你可以使用go-assets将服务器构建成一个包含模板的二进制文件

func main() {
r := gin.New()

t, err := loadTemplate()
if err != nil {
    panic(err)
}
r.SetHTMLTemplate(t)

r.GET("/", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.HTML(http.StatusOK, "/html/index.tmpl",nil)
})
r.Run(":8080")

}

// loadTemplate loads templates embedded by go-assets-builder
func loadTemplate() (*template.Template, error) {
t := template.New("")
for name, file := range Assets.Files {
if file.IsDir() || !strings.HasSuffix(name, ".tmpl") {
continue
}
h, err := ioutil.ReadAll(file)
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
t, err = t.New(name).Parse(string(h))
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
}
return t, nil
}
请参见examples/assets-in-binary目录中的例子

使用自定义结构绑定表单数据
以下示例使用自定义结构

type StructA struct {
FieldA string form:"field_a"
}

type StructB struct {
NestedStruct StructA
FieldB string form:"field_b"
}

type StructC struct {
NestedStructPointer *StructA
FieldC string form:"field_c"
}

type StructD struct {
NestedAnonyStruct struct {
FieldX string form:"field_x"
}
FieldD string form:"field_d"
}

func GetDataB(c *gin.Context) {
var b StructB
c.Bind(&b)
c.JSON(200, gin.H{
"a": b.NestedStruct,
"b": b.FieldB,
})
}

func GetDataC(c *gin.Context) {
var b StructC
c.Bind(&b)
c.JSON(200, gin.H{
"a": b.NestedStructPointer,
"c": b.FieldC,
})
}

func GetDataD(c *gin.Context) {
var b StructD
c.Bind(&b)
c.JSON(200, gin.H{
"x": b.NestedAnonyStruct,
"d": b.FieldD,
})
}

func main() {
r := gin.Default()
r.GET("/getb", GetDataB)
r.GET("/getc", GetDataC)
r.GET("/getd", GetDataD)

r.Run()

}
运行示例:

$ curl "http://localhost:8080/getb?field_a=hello&field_b=world"
{"a":{"FieldA":"hello"},"b":"world"}
$ curl "http://localhost:8080/getc?field_a=hello&field_c=world"
{"a":{"FieldA":"hello"},"c":"world"}
$ curl "http://localhost:8080/getd?field_x=hello&field_d=world"
{"d":"world","x":{"FieldX":"hello"}}
注意:不支持以下样式结构

type StructX struct {
X struct {} form:"name_x" // HERE have form
}

type StructY struct {
Y StructX form:"name_y" // HERE have form
}

type StructZ struct {
Z *StructZ form:"name_z" // HERE have form
}
总之,现在只支持现在没有form标签的自定义结构

将请求体绑定到不同的结构体中
绑定请求体的常规方法使用c.Request.Body,并且不能多次调用

type formA struct {
Foo string json:"foo" xml:"foo" binding:"required"
}

type formB struct {
Bar string json:"bar" xml:"bar" binding:"required"
}

func SomeHandler(c *gin.Context) {
objA := formA{}
objB := formB{}
// This c.ShouldBind consumes c.Request.Body and it cannot be reused.
if errA := c.ShouldBind(&objA); errA == nil {
c.String(http.StatusOK, the body should be formA)
// Always an error is occurred by this because c.Request.Body is EOF now.
} else if errB := c.ShouldBind(&objB); errB == nil {
c.String(http.StatusOK, the body should be formB)
} else {
...
}
}
同样,你能使用c.ShouldBindBodyWith

func SomeHandler(c *gin.Context) {
objA := formA{}
objB := formB{}
// This reads c.Request.Body and stores the result into the context.
if errA := c.ShouldBindBodyWith(&objA, binding.JSON); errA == nil {
c.String(http.StatusOK, the body should be formA)
// At this time, it reuses body stored in the context.
} else if errB := c.ShouldBindBodyWith(&objB, binding.JSON); errB == nil {
c.String(http.StatusOK, the body should be formB JSON)
// And it can accepts other formats
} else if errB2 := c.ShouldBindBodyWith(&objB, binding.XML); errB2 == nil {
c.String(http.StatusOK, the body should be formB XML)
} else {
...
}
}
c.ShouldBindBodyWith 在绑定之前将body存储到上下文中,这对性能有轻微影响,因此如果你要立即调用,则不应使用此方法
此功能仅适用于这些格式 -- JSON, XML, MsgPack, ProtoBuf。对于其他格式,Query, Form, FormPost, FormMultipart, 可以被c.ShouldBind()多次调用而不影响性能(参考 #1341)
HTTP/2 服务器推送
http.Pusher只支持Go 1.8或更高版本,有关详细信息,请参阅golang博客

package main

import (
"html/template"
"log"

"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

)

var html = template.Must(template.New("https").Parse(`


Https Test


Welcome, Ginner!




`))

func main() {
r := gin.Default()
r.Static("/assets", "./assets")
r.SetHTMLTemplate(html)

r.GET("/", func(c *gin.Context) {
    if pusher := c.Writer.Pusher(); pusher != nil {
        // use pusher.Push() to do server push
        if err := pusher.Push("/assets/app.js", nil); err != nil {
            log.Printf("Failed to push: %v", err)
        }
    }
    c.HTML(200, "https", gin.H{
        "status": "success",
    })
})

// Listen and Server in https://127.0.0.1:8080
r.RunTLS(":8080", "./testdata/server.pem", "./testdata/server.key")

}
自定义路由日志的格式
默认的路由日志是这样的:

[GIN-debug] POST /foo --> main.main.func1 (3 handlers)
[GIN-debug] GET /bar --> main.main.func2 (3 handlers)
[GIN-debug] GET /status --> main.main.func3 (3 handlers)
如果你想以给定的格式记录这些信息(例如 JSON,键值对或其他格式),你可以使用gin.DebugPrintRouteFunc来定义格式,在下面的示例中,我们使用标准日志包记录路由日志,你可以使用其他适合你需求的日志工具

import (
"log"
"net/http"

"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

)

func main() {
r := gin.Default()
gin.DebugPrintRouteFunc = func(httpMethod, absolutePath, handlerName string, nuHandlers int) {
log.Printf("endpoint %v %v %v %v\n", httpMethod, absolutePath, handlerName, nuHandlers)
}

r.POST("/foo", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.JSON(http.StatusOK, "foo")
})

r.GET("/bar", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.JSON(http.StatusOK, "bar")
})

r.GET("/status", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.JSON(http.StatusOK, "ok")
})

// Listen and Server in http://0.0.0.0:8080
r.Run()

}
设置并获取cookie
import (
"fmt"

"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

)

func main() {

router := gin.Default()

router.GET("/cookie", func(c *gin.Context) {

    cookie, err := c.Cookie("gin_cookie")

    if err != nil {
        cookie = "NotSet"
        c.SetCookie("gin_cookie", "test", 3600, "/", "localhost", false, true)
    }

    fmt.Printf("Cookie value: %s \n", cookie)
})

router.Run()

}
测试
net/http/httptest包是http测试的首选方式

package main

func setupRouter() gin.Engine {
r := gin.Default()
r.GET("/ping", func(c
gin.Context) {
c.String(200, "pong")
})
return r
}

func main() {
r := setupRouter()
r.Run(":8080")
}
测试上面的示例代码

package main

import (
"net/http"
"net/http/httptest"
"testing"

"github.com/stretchr/testify/assert"

)

func TestPingRoute(t *testing.T) {
router := setupRouter()

w := httptest.NewRecorder()
req, _ := http.NewRequest("GET", "/ping", nil)
router.ServeHTTP(w, req)

assert.Equal(t, 200, w.Code)
assert.Equal(t, "pong", w.Body.String())

}
用户
以下是使用Gin的一些用户

drone: Drone is a Continuous Delivery platform built on Docker, written in Go.
gorush: A push notification server written in Go.
fnproject: The container native, cloud agnostic serverless platform.
photoprism: Personal photo management powered by Go and Google TensorFlow.
krakend: Ultra performant API Gateway with middlewares.
picfit: An image resizing server written in Go.

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